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This paper proposes an optimisation-based framework to tackle long-term centralised planning problems of integrated energy systems with bi-directional electricity-gas carriers coupling under various policy constraints. The framework is leveraged to gain insight into possible configurations of the future Belgian energy system, and identify the cost-optimal energy mix as well as short and long-term storage requirements to satisfy CO2 emissions reductions and energy security targets. Results shed light on the economics of a transition to a low-carbon energy system and reveal the potential of power-to-gas and storage in gas form to help achieve ambitious emissions reduction goals.

And, the Figure given hereafter displays the configuration of the multi-carrier system considered in this paper.


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